Although most open source developers would probably hate to admit it, marketing works. Good marketing can create buzz around an open source product, even to the point where hardheaded coders find themselves having vaguely positive thoughts about the software for reasons they can't quite put their finger on. It is not my purpose here to dissect the arms-race dynamics of marketing in general. Any corporation involved in free software will eventually find itself considering how to market themselves, the software, or their relationship to the software.
Much of the advice in this section is simply about how to avoid common pitfalls in marketing open source products (see also the section called “Publicity” and the section called “Don't Bash Competing Open Source Products”), although we will start by examining a major marketing advantage that open source products enjoy over proprietary products, and that open source businesses should promote as often as possible: the lack of vendor lock-in.
Vendor lock-in is what happens when a vendor sells a service or product to a customer, perhaps at a cheap up-front price, but the customer has to make certain further investments in order to use the product — e.g., infrastructure changes, workflow and other process changes, data reformatting, retraining, etc. The cost to the customer of switching away from that vendor's product is now the strength with which the vendor has the customer locked in. Even if the customer is eventually unhappy with the vendor, by that point the total cost of moving to someone else may be quite high, and that cost is independent of whatever licensing or service fees the vendor charges.
The great commercial strength of open source is that product and vendor are not the same. In open source, you can switch to another vendor, or to a combination of vendors, or even a combination of vendor and in-house support, all while continuing to use the same product in more or less the same way.
So if you sell open source, make sure your potential customers are clear on this point, and give them as many concrete examples as you can. It may, in some circumstances, even be useful to point out the existence of some of your competitors, because their presence paradoxically reassures the customer that choosing you is a safe decision — if things don't work out, there are other options. If you just make sure things work out, then the customer will never need to seek out those other options.
Proprietary vendors often compete against open source by talking about the "total cost of ownership", that is, they sell against open source's up-front cost of zero — no per-copy royalties, no per-seat license fees — by pointing out, reasonably enough, that although there may be no licensing fees, in practice software integration involves organizational and technical costs that can be quite significant. This is quite true, as far as it goes, but that argument works the other way too: to the extent that there are such costs — and there really are — the danger to the customer of vendor lock-in is directly proportional to them. Another way of saying it is that the costs of proprietary software tend to outstrip the costs of open source over a long enough period of time. One pays a premium for decreasingly competitive vendor selection, both in money and in loss of flexibility and options.
I would love to see open source sales representatives talk more about the "cost of total ownership", that is, how much does it cost a company to be totally owned by its software vendors? With open source, customers are not owned — they are the owners, to exactly the degree that they want to be, and they can outsource as much of that responsibility to outside vendors as they want. Their relationships with those vendors are thus more likely to be based on mutual satisfaction and mutual benefit, not on an asymmetrical monopoly that gives existing vendors undue inertia in customers' procurement decisions.
For the sake of keeping the developer community on your side, it is very important not to say anything that isn't demonstrably true. Audit all claims carefully before making them, and give the public the means to check your claims on their own. Independent fact checking is a major part of open source, and it applies to more than just the code.
Naturally no one would advise companies to make unverifiable claims anyway. But with open source activities, there is an unusually high quantity of people with the expertise to verify claims — people who are also likely to have high-bandwidth Internet access and the right social contacts to publicize their findings in a damaging way, should they choose to. When Global Megacorp Chemical Industries pollutes a stream, that's verifiable, but only by trained scientists, who can then be refuted by Global Megacorp's scientists, leaving the public scratching their heads and wondering what to think. On the other hand, your behavior in the open source world is not only visible and recorded, it is also easy for many people to check it independently, come to their own conclusions, and spread those conclusions by word of mouth. These communications networks are already in place; they are the essence of how open source operates, and they can be used to transmit any sort of information. Refutation is usually difficult, if not impossible — especially when what people are saying is true.
For example, it's okay to refer to your organization as having "founded project X" if you really did. But don't refer to yourself as the "makers of X" if most of the code was written by outsiders. Conversely, don't claim to have a deeply involved, broad-based developer community if anyone can look at your repository and see that there are few or no code changes coming from outside your organization.
Once I saw an announcement by a very well-known computer company, stating that they were releasing an important software package under an open source license. When the initial announcement came out, I took a look at their now-public version control repository and saw that it contained only three revisions. In other words, they had done an initial import of the source code, but hardly anything had happened since then. That in itself was not worrying — they'd just made the announcement, after all. There was no reason to expect a lot of development activity right away.
Some time later, they made another announcement. Here is what it said, with the name and release number replaced by pseudonyms:
We are pleased to announce that following rigorous testing by the Singer Community, Singer 5 for Linux and Windows are now ready for production use.
Curious to know what the community had uncovered in "rigorous testing," I went back to the repository to look at its recent change history. The project was still on revision 3. Apparently, they hadn't found a single bug worth fixing before the release! Thinking that the results of the community testing must have been recorded elsewhere, I next examined the bug tracker. There were exactly six open tickets, four of which had been open for several months already.
This beggars belief, of course. When testers pound on a large and complex piece of software for any length of time, they will find bugs. Even if the fixes for those bugs don't make it into the upcoming release, one would still expect some version control activity as a result of the testing process, or at least some new tickets. Yet to all appearances, nothing had happened between the announcement of the open source license and the first open source release.
The point is not that the company was lying about the "rigorous testing" by the community (though I suspect they were). The point is that they were oblivious to how much it looked like they were lying. Since neither the version control repository nor the ticket tracker gave any indication that the alleged rigorous testing had occurred, the company should either not have made the claim in the first place, or should have provided a clear link to some tangible result of that testing ("We found 278 bugs; click here for details"). The latter would have allowed anyone to get a handle on the level of community activity very quickly. As it was, it only took me a few minutes to determine that whatever this community testing was, it had not left traces in any of the usual places. That's not a lot of effort, and I'm sure I'm not the only one who took the trouble.
Transparency and verifiability are also an important part of accurate crediting, of course. See the section called “Credit” for more on this.
Another situation companies find themselves in, when selling services based on open source software, is that they have competitors in the marketplace who may be selling services based on the same software.
If you're going to sell your company's services, you inevitably will need to compare your company against others selling the same or similar things. This is expected, and in many ways healthy. However, be careful to avoid straying into public criticism of the other development teams or even, to a degree, of their development priorities.
Your own developers have to work directly with those competitors' developers in the open source project. They often have friendly relations, show up at the same conferences, etc. Even if that's not the case today, it may be tomorrow (as discussed in the section called “Don't Bash Competing Open Source Products”). Furthermore, you may find yourself hiring developers from your competitors; if you burn up available goodwill in advance, you may not get the best candidates.
Without mentioning names, in part because the situation eventually got better and I don't want to rekindle the flames now, I will say that I saw exactly this happen between two companies (one of whom was my employer at the time) who were competing to sell services based on the same open source software. The ill will stirred up among the project's developers by the marketing statements of one company (not my employer) had real consequences, and that company lost out on retaining the services of some excellent developers because it failed to think through the fact that their marketing in the commercial realm was also visible and had effects in the development community.
One common pattern among companies involved in open source software is to market a fully open source version of their product alongside, and in direct comparison to, an enhanced proprietary version. Since the open source version is free software, you could in theory add those enhancements yourself, or collaborate with others to do so, but in practice, the effort required to do that (and to maintain a now separate fork of the project) is, for each collaborator, much greater than the cost of just paying for the proprietary version, so it rarely happens.
This sales model is often referred to as "open core", that is, a core set of functionality that is available as open source software, with a more featureful application wrapped around it as proprietary software. This usually depends on the core open source code having a non-copyleft license, of course, and is discussed in more detail in the section called “Proprietary Relicensing”.
Open core is somewhat controversial among open source developers, but it has been successful strictly from a business point of view: companies that do it make money in the way that they expect to make money. However, there is bit of marketing slippage that many of these companies fall into, and I would like to point it out here to convince you not to be part of the problem.
If you sell a free software version and an enhanced proprietary version of your product, please use the words "open source" and "proprietary" to refer to them, respectively. Do not call the open source version the "Community Edition" and the proprietary version the "Commercial Edition" (or "Enterprise Edition").
Aside from the fact that everyone knows there is very little "community" around these so-called "Community Editions", there is a deeper problem here. Calling the proprietary version the "Commercial Edition" implies that open source software is not commercial, and calling it the "Enterprise Edition" implies that open source software is not suitable for enterprise-level use. The former is untrue because open source software is commercial by definition: the license guarantees the freedom to use the software for any commercial purpose. (Open source is anti-monopoly, of course, but that's separate from commerciality.) The latter is also usually untrue: open source software in general is widely used at enterprise scale, with and without third-party support, and chances are an enterprise could use your open source edition too.
This kind of misleading marketing particularly hurts efforts by open source companies to get their software accepted by governments and by other buyers who have sophisticated procurement requirements. These procurement regulations often include stipulations that purchased software must be "commercial", "commercial off-the-shelf", or "commercially available" — definitions that all open source software meets — and portraying open source as non-commercial gives purchasing officers a misimpression. The extent to which those decision-makers think of open source as inherently non-commercial hurts open source software as a whole, by stymieing those who are doing their best to make inroads in these kinds of procurement environments.